Monthly Archives: July 2018
Puthuvayil Narayana Panicker is known as the Father of the Library Movement in the Indian state of Kerala. The activities of the Kerala Grandhasala Sanghom that he initiated triggered a popular cultural movement in Kerala which produced universal literacy in the state in the 1990s.
Panicker was born on 1 March 1909 in Jamjamjum to Govinda Pillai and Janaky Amma at Neelamperoor, India. In 1926 he started the Sanadanadharmam Library as a teacher in his hometown.he was a teacher and his influence on society was much greater than many of his time.
Panicker led the formation of Thiruvithaamkoor Granthasala Sangham (Travancore Library Association) in 1945 with 47 rural libraries. The slogan of the organization was ‘Read and Grow’. Later on, with the formation of Kerala State in 1956, it became Kerala Granthasala Sangham (KGS). He traveled to the villages of Kerala proclaiming the value of reading. He succeeded in bringing some 6,000 libraries into this network. Grandhasala Sangham won the prestigious ‘Krupsakaya Award’ from UNESCO in 1975. Panicker was the General Secretary of Sangham for 32 years, until 1977, when it was taken over by the State Government. It became the Kerala State Library Council, with an in-built democratic structure and funding.
After his organization was taken over by the State, Panicker became subject to political interference. In 1977 he responded by founding the Kerala Association for Non-formal Education and Development (KANFED). KANFED was instrumental in starting the Kerala State Literacy Mission, which led Kerala to its universal literacy movement. Thus, Kerala became the first state which achieved universal literacy.
Panicker took a keen interest in promoting Agricultural Books Corners, The Friendship Village Movement (Sauhrudagramam), Reading Programmes for Families, Grants for Books and building libraries and Best Reader’s Award P.N. Panicker Foundation.
Panicker died on 19 June 1995, at age 86. The Government of Kerala acknowledged his contributions and ordered that 19 June be observed, annually, as Vaayanadinam (Day of Reading) with a week-long series of activities at schools and public institutions to honor his contributions to the cause of literacy, education and library movement.
The Department of Posts honored Panicker by issuing a commemorative postage stamp on 21 June 2004.
His birth centenary was celebrated under the auspices of the P. N. Panicker Foundation in 2010.
Tirot Sing, also known as U Tirot Sing, was one of the chiefs of the Khasi people in the early 19th century. He drew his lineage from the Syiemlieh clan. He was Syiem (chief) of Nongkhlaw, part of the Khasi Hills. His surname was Syiem. He was a constitutional head sharing corporate authority with his Council, generally representatives of leading clans within his territory. Tirot Sing fought against British attempts to take over control of the Khasi Hills.
He died on 17 July 1835. His death is commemorated in Meghalaya, India as U Tirot Sing Day.
Anglo-Khasi War and Martyrdom
The British already had gained control over the Brahmaputra valley after concluding the Treaty of Yandabo in 1826. Between their possessions in Sylhet and the newly acquired possessions in Lower Assam intervened the Khasi Hills. They wanted to construct a road through this area to connect Guwahati with Sylhet to save weeks of travel and malariouscountry. David Scott, the agent to the British Governor-General for the Northern Territory, found out that U Tirot Sing was interested in regaining possessions in the duars ( passes into Assam) in return for the permission for the road project. After a two-day session of the durbar (court) the assembly agreed to the proposal of the British. Work on the road was started. When Balaram Singh, Raja of Ranee, disputed U Tirot Sing’s claims to the duars, he went with a party of armed men in December 1828 to establish his claim. He was confident that the British would support him, but instead was confronted by a party of sepoys who blocked his passage. When news came that the British were reinforcing forces in Assam, U Tirot Sing convened a Durbar again and passed orders for the British to evacuate Nongkhlaw. The British paid no heed, and the Khasis attacked the British garrison in Nongkhlaw on 4 April 1829. His men killed two British officers, and thus unleashed the fury of British retaliation. Military operations against U Tirot Sing and other Khasi chiefs were started immediately. In the Anglo-Khasi War, the Khasis lacked firearms and had only swords, shields, bows and arrows. They were untrained in the British type of warfare and soon found that it was impossible to engage in open battle against an enemy who could kill from a distance. Instead, they resorted to guerrilla activity, which dragged on for about four years. Tirot Sing fought with only with native weapons such as a sword and shield, he was shot at by the British and had to hide in a cave and was eventually captured by the British in January 1833 and deported to Dhaka the location of his hiding place was given by a chief of his who was bribed with gold coins by the British. He died on 17 July 1835. His death anniversary is commemorated every year as a state holiday in Meghalaya.
Artist’s rendering of Tirot Sing
Mr. Krishna Nand Singh, librarian joined KV Umroi Cantt, Meghalaya (Silchar Region) on 12.07.2018, consequent upon his transfer from KV Khammam Telangana (Hyderabad Region).